EP0275745B1 – Method for making glass objects – Google Patents

We use cookies to make our website work more efficiently, to provide you with more personalised services or advertising to you, and to analyse traffic on our website. For more information on how we use cookies and how to manage cookies, please follow the ‘Read more’ link, otherwise select ‘Accept and close’. Museum scientists use a range of techniques to investigate objects. There are a number of scientific techniques which can be used to date antiquities, but probably the best known and most frequently used is radiocarbon or 14C dating. Radiocarbon dating can only be applied to organisms that were once alive and is a means of determining how long ago they died. Radiocarbon dating is possible because of the existence in nature of a tiny amount of 14C, or radiocarbon, a radioactive isotope of carbon. This isotope is produced in the upper atmosphere by the action of cosmic rays on 14N.

Scientific techniques

It does not matter where you live. If you have an idea, the artists will help bring it to life. Every artist is so good, they teach classes to all skill levels. Brent Kee Young, glass artist and Cleveland Institute of Art professor emeritus, has been recognized by scores of museums, galleries, colleges and universities in the United States and Asia, which hav.

Artist Robert Mickelson is an expert sculptor whose medium of choice happens to be glass. There’s something so pure and serene about glass.

The molten glass is brought to the cane by a tip provided on the latter, this metal tip is substantially resistant to oxidation at temperatures to which it can be.

Hundreds of years before this modern term was coined, scientists were using the properties it describes to manufacture cutting-edge goods and to explore the world around them. George from the early 15th century. Medieval artisans discovered through alchemical experimentation that adding gold chloride to molten glass resulted in a red tint, and adding silver nitrate turned the glass yellow.

Recently scientists analyzed stained glass from this era and discovered that the technique, possibly dating back to the 10th century, worked because of nanotechnology; analysis of the stained glass revealed that gold and silver nanoparticles, acting as quantum dots, reflected red and yellow light, respectively. From the 12th to 18th century, Middle Eastern metalsmiths also practiced a form of nanotechnology. Using steel ingots imported from India, Damascene metalsmiths forged blades sharper and more durable than western blades, especially those of the Crusaders.

The exact process for producing these highly prized blades remained a closely guarded trade secret, handed down only from teacher to apprentice. Scientists and historians have postulated that as Indian steel mines were depleted mining shifted elsewhere, and eventually the ingots no longer had the specific composition required to produce Damascus steel. Since the method no longer worked, it was lost through the ages.

In materials scientists, using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, found traces of carbon nanotubes and nanowires present in Damascus steel blades. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, industrialists used carbon black, which has since been discovered to be a nanomaterial. At the turn of the century, scientists found that carbon black could reinforce rubber and thus improve its strength, tensile properties, and tear and abrasion resistance.

EP0040201A1 – Method in producing glass objects by using a blow pipe – Google Patents

Ceramic objects have been made by nearly every culture around the world, dating back over thousands of years. Many ceramic vessels were made for storage, but have also been used to express spiritual beliefs and record cultural practices. Archaeological digs have uncovered amazing ceramic artifacts that help us understand the lives of past civilizations.

Marja Peek, Central Research Laboratory for Objects of Art and Science,. Amsterdam the date of introduction of a new pigment, may be in the study of painters’ The more commonly known method of painting on a piece of glass in reverse.

The approach relies on a special resin that can be cured using ultraviolet UV light. The inherent problem regarding printable glass is that the material requires very high temperatures to process. In order to solve the issue, the team from ETH Zurich went back to the roots, and worked from stereolithography, one of the first 3-D printing techniques developed during the s.

They developed a resin which contains a plastic material and organic molecules tied to glass precursors that can be hardened by exposure to UV light. When blasted with UV light — the team says commercially available Digital Light Processing technology works just fine — photosensitive components in the resin bind together. The plastic in the ink forms into a maze-like polymer that provides the structural framework.

Ceramic-bearing molecules link together in the empty areas created by the framework.

Evidence Collection Guidelines

The invention relates to procedures for increasing the mechanical strength of glass objects, particularly flat or curved glass plates. It in particular applies to aircraft glazings or more generally to all cases where a high mechanical strength must be ensured. It is known that the mechanical strength of a glass object can be increased by a tempering operation consisting of placing the surface of the object under compression beforehand either thermally or chemically by an ion exchange process, which leads to the surface replacement of part of the sodium ions by larger ions such as e.

The final mechanical strength obtained is obviously dependent on the type of tempering treatment performed, but also on the quality of the surface prior to the treatment of the object. In the case of a glass plate, the most important surface defects are essentially encountered close to edges which have undergone a cutting treatment.

It is certainly possible to minimize this problem by a high-quality polishing of the edges, e.

The invention relates to a process for reinforcing a glass object by The concave parts of the defects are reached in the same way and the convex parts, so that.

Cold-cut glass became the most prominent artistic form of decoration in the early Islamic period, especially in the ninth and tenth centuries. While this lapidary technique is as old as glassmaking itself, dating well before glassblowing was invented, Roman and Sasanian cut glass from eastern Mediterranean and Iranian areas, respectively provided immediate models. From Egypt to Iran, Islamic cut and engraved decoration took various forms, ranging from complex relief patterns created using mechanically operated wheels and drills to hair-width incisions made with a pointed tool.

In the scratch-engraved technique, fine incisions were made using a pointed tool mounted with diamond, topaz, or corundum chips to create linear, vegetal , and geometric patterns. In relief-cut glass, the background and most of the inner areas of the main design were removed by cutting and grinding, leaving the outlines and some details in relief.

This group also includes Roman -inspired cameo glass—colorless glass encased by a colored layer in order to create a dramatic bichromatic contrast. Carboni, Stefano, and Qamar Adamjee.

Dating Rocks and Fossils Using Geologic Methods

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Roman glassware includes some of the finest pieces of art ever However, plain glass vessels such as cups, bowls, plates, and bottles were also used as method is not known, but the earliest examples of blown glass date.

Archaeologists use many different techniques to determine the age of a particular artifact, site, or part of a site. Two broad categories of dating or chronometric techniques that archaeologists use are called relative and absolute dating. Stratigraphy is the oldest of the relative dating methods that archaeologists use to date things. Stratigraphy is based on the law of superposition–like a layer cake, the lowest layers must have been formed first. In other words, artifacts found in the upper layers of a site will have been deposited more recently than those found in the lower layers.

Cross-dating of sites, comparing geologic strata at one site with another location and extrapolating the relative ages in that manner, is still an important dating strategy used today, primarily when sites are far too old for absolute dates to have much meaning. The scholar most associated with the rules of stratigraphy or law of superposition is probably the geologist Charles Lyell. The basis for stratigraphy seems quite intuitive today, but its applications were no less than earth-shattering to archaeological theory.

Seriation, on the other hand, was a stroke of genius. First used, and likely invented by archaeologist Sir William Flinders-Petrie in , seriation or sequence dating is based on the idea that artifacts change over time. Like tail fins on a Cadillac, artifact styles and characteristics change over time, coming into fashion, then fading in popularity.

Generally, seriation is manipulated graphically. The standard graphical result of seriation is a series of “battleship curves,” which are horizontal bars representing percentages plotted on a vertical axis.

US9630868B2 – Glass blowing apparatus and method of making glass objects – Google Patents

Radiometric dating , radioactive dating or radioisotope dating is a technique which is used to date materials such as rocks or carbon , in which trace radioactive impurities were selectively incorporated when they were formed. The method compares the abundance of a naturally occurring radioactive isotope within the material to the abundance of its decay products, which form at a known constant rate of decay. Together with stratigraphic principles , radiometric dating methods are used in geochronology to establish the geologic time scale.

ABSTRACT: Method of manufacturing hollow glass objects, object manufactured by means of the method and apparatus for carrying out the method. A method.

As Berge noted in referring to bottles, the ” This bottle dating “key” is a relatively simple “first cut” on the dating of a bottle. Please be aware that in order to gain the maximum information about any particular bottle e. Unfortunately, the complexities of precisely dating bottles is beyond the scope of any simple key; more complex keys are far in the future if they ever become available.

A substantial amount of bottle type specific information must be reviewed by a user to increase the probability of dating accuracy. Additional reference materials outside of this website must usually be consulted to narrow down the date of any item as far as is possible and to really get a “feel” for the history of the bottle in question. Fortunately, as each year passes more of this type information becomes available on the internet.

Since this website was initiated a simple search for a bottle can now yield much more information than back then, depending on the precision and wording of a search. This admittedly can be very challenging with bottles that have no company, user, or bottle maker related embossing or original labeling. The information on this website will, however, usually produce a reliable manufacturing date range for a majority of American utilitarian bottles manufactured from the late 17th century to the midth century.

Click here to move directly to the “Dating a Bottle” Section below. Using just physical, manufacturing related diagnostic features, most utilitarian bottles can usually only be accurately placed within a date range of years i.

History of glass

When museums and collectors purchase archaeological items for their collections they enter an expensive and potentially deceptive commercial fine arts arena. Healthy profits are to be made from illicitly plundered ancient sites or selling skillfully made forgeries. Archaeology dating techniques can assure buyers that their item is not a fake by providing scientific reassurance of the artefact’s likely age. Archaeological scientists have two primary ways of telling the age of artefacts and the sites from which they came: relative dating and absolute dating.

Relative Dating In Archaeology Relative dating in archaeology presumes the age of an artefact in relation and by comparison, to other objects found in its vicinity.

A method for producing decorative glass objects in which the decoration is created by blisters formed by air bubbles within solid glass and/or by a pattern on the.

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Email Address. Sign In. Recognition and reconstruction of transparent objects for augmented reality Abstract: Dealing with real transparent objects for AR is challenging due to their lack of texture and visual features as well as the drastic changes in appearance as the background, illumination and camera pose change. The few existing methods for glass object detection usually require a carefully controlled environment, specialized illumination hardware or ignore information from different viewpoints.

In this work, we explore the use of a learning approach for classifying transparent objects from multiple images with the aim of both discovering such objects and building a 3D reconstruction to support convincing augmentations. We extract, classify and group small image patches using a fast graph-based segmentation and employ a probabilistic formulation for aggregating spatially consistent glass regions. We demonstrate our approach via analysis of the performance of glass region detection and example 3D reconstructions that allow virtual objects to interact with them.

unusual & different glass objects

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The method is based on a relation between the age of a glass object and the thickness of the layer of hydrated glass on its surface, with the thickness of this.

The history of glass-making dates back to at least 3, BC in Mesopotamia , however some claim they may have been producing copies of glass objects from Egypt. Development of glass technology in India may have begun in 1, BC. From across the former Roman Empire archaeologists have recovered glass objects that were used in domestic, industrial and funerary contexts. Anglo-Saxon glass has been found across England during archaeological excavations of both settlement and cemetery sites. Glass in the Anglo-Saxon period was used in the manufacture of a range of objects including vessels, beads, windows and was even used in jewelry.

Naturally occurring glass , especially the volcanic glass obsidian , has been used by many Stone Age societies across the globe for the production of sharp cutting tools and, due to its limited source areas, was extensively traded. But in general, archaeological evidence suggests that the first true glass was made in coastal north Syria , Mesopotamia or ancient Egypt. The earliest known glass objects, of the mid-third millennium BC , were beads, perhaps initially created as accidental by-products of metal-working slags or during the production of faience , a pre-glass vitreous material made by a process similar to glazing.

During the Late Bronze Age in Egypt e. Archaeological finds from this period include colored glass ingots , vessels often colored and shaped in imitation of highly prized hardstone carvings in semi-precious stones and the ubiquitous beads. The alkali of Syrian and Egyptian glass was soda ash sodium carbonate , which can be extracted from the ashes of many plants, notably halophile seashore plants like saltwort.

The latest vessels were ‘core-formed’, produced by winding a ductile rope of glass around a shaped core of sand and clay over a metal rod, then fusing it by reheating it several times.

US4367086A – Method for producing decorative glass objects – Google Patents

Glass with bubbles has previously been produced either by using sodium carbonate or by boiling molten glass in a furnace before starting the production in order to produce blisters. However, when using these methods, the outcome has not been controllable but has been rather random, which has resulted in an extremely high waste percentage.

Moreover, these methods have only been applicable to manual glass-making.

Researchers at ETH Zürich have developed the first 3D-printing method that can produce highly-complex, porous glass objects. The approach.

Production of colored glass objects is an ancient art. Objects such as vases characteristically are all of a single color. Multicolored vases are made, but usually the different colors are in compact masses, such as a colored vase having a transparent handle. Multicolored vases also may be made by swirling one color of glass within another or by adding colored pieces such as medallions to protrude above the surface of the object itself.

Multicolored glass objects such as stained glass windows also have been made, and these are characteristically produced by holding variously colored pieces of glass in the desired relationship to one another by embedding their edges in channels of lead or other malleable metal. Although it is desirable, there is no medium by which multicolored glass objects having distinct patterns can be made with smooth surfaces and as a continuous glass object having the pattern integral with the rest of the object.

This is particularly true of objects in the form of flat panes of glass of ordinary sizes such as those that can be installed as windows. In this specification and the appended claims, the term color is used in its usual sense as well as in a sense associated with glass. It is defined as either transparent or opaque glass elements of varying colors and includes opaque white glass, which is readily distinguishable from transparent glass.


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